- Chinooks, Gallatin in Trans. and Coll. Am. Antiq. Soc., II,
134, 306, 1836 (a single tribe at mouth of Columbia).
- Chinooks, Hale in U.S. Expl. Expd., VI, 198, 1846. Gallatin,
after Hale, in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II, pt. 1, 15, 1848 (or
- Tshinuk, Hale in U. S. Expl. Expd., VI, 562, 569, 1846
(contains Watlala or Upper Chinook, including Watlala,
Nihaloitih, or Echeloots; and Tshinuk, including Tshinuk,
- Tsinuk, Gallatin, after Hale, in Trans. Am. Eth. Soc., II,
pt. 1, 15, 1848. Berghaus (1851), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1852.
- Cheenook, Latham in Jour. Eth. Soc. Lond., I, 236, 1848.
Latham, Opuscula, 253, 1860.
- Chinuk, Latham, Nat. Hist. Man, 317, 1850 (same as Tshinúk;
includes Chinúks proper, Klatsops, Kathlamut, WakÃ¡ikam, Watlala,
Nihaloitih). Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 73, 1856
(mere mention of family name). Latham, Opuscula, 340, 1860.
Buschmann. Spuren der aztek. Sprache, 616-619, 1859.
- Tschinuk, Berghaus (1851), Physik. Atlas, map 17, 1852.
Latham in Trans. Philolog. Soc. Lond., 73, 1856 (mere mention of
family name). Latham, Opuscula, 340, 1860. Latham, El. Comp.
Phil., 402, 1862 (cites a short vocabulary of Watlala).
- Tshinook, Gallatin in Schoolcraft, Ind. Tribes, III, 402,
1853 (Chinooks, Clatsops, and Watlala). Tolmie and Dawson, Comp.
Vocabs. Brit. Col., 51, 61, 1884.
- Tshinuk, Buschmann, Spuren der aztek. Sprache, 616, 1859
(same as his Chinuk).
- T´sinuk, Dall, after Gibbs, in Cont. N.A. Eth., 1, 241, 1877
(mere mention of family)
- Chinook, Gatschet in Mag. Am. Hist., 167, 1877 (names and
gives habitats of tribes). Gatschet in Beach, Ind. Misc., 442,
- Chinooks, Keane, App. to Stanford’s Comp. (Cent. and So.
Am.), 474, 1878 (includes Skilloots, Watlalas, Lower Chinooks,
Wakiakurns, Cathlamets, Clatsops, Calapooyas, Clackamas,
Killamooks, Yamkally, Chimook Jargon; of these Calapooyas and
Yamkally are Kalapooian, Killamooks are Salishan).
- Chinook, Bancroft, Nat. Races, III, 565, 626-628, 1882
(enumerates Chinook, Wakiakum, Cathlamet, Clatsop, Multnomah,
- Nootka-Columbian, Scouler in Jour. Roy. Geog. Soc. Lond.,
XI, 224, 1841 (includes Cheenooks, and Cathlascons of present
Southern, Scouler, ibid., 234 (same as his Nootka-Columbian
The vocabulary of the Chinook tribe, upon which the family name
was based, was derived from the mouth of the Columbia. As now
understood the family embraces a number of tribes, speaking allied
languages, whose former homes extended from the mouth of the river
for some 200 miles, or to The Dalles. According to Lewis and Clarke,
our best authorities on the pristine home of this family, most of
their villages were on the banks of the river, chiefly upon the
northern bank, though they probably claimed the land upon either
bank for several miles back. Their villages also extended on the
Pacific coast north nearly to the northern extreme of Shoalwater
Bay, and to the south to about Tillamook Head, some 20 miles from
the mouth of the Columbia.
Population.—There are two hundred
and eighty-eight Wasco on the Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon, and
one hundred and fifty on the Yakama Reservation, Washington. On the
Grande Ronde Reservation, Oregon, there are fifty-nine Clackama.
From information derived from Indians by Mr. Thomas Priestly, United
States Indian Agent at Yakama, it is learned that there still remain
three or four families of “regular Chinook Indians,” probably
belonging to one of the down-river tribes, about 6 miles above the
mouth of the Columbia. Two of these speak the Chinook proper, and
three have an imperfect command of Clatsop. There are eight or ten
families, probably also of one of the lower river tribes, living
near Freeport, Washington.
Some of the Watlala, or Upper Chinook, live near the Cascades, about
55 miles below The Dalles. There thus remain probably between five
and six hundred of the Indians of this family.
Indian Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico, 1891